“There have always been debates about it. Some people said a heretic wrote it. Some said a disciple. There have always been people who loved and championed it.” Biblical scholar Elaine Pagels tells the real story behind the Book of Revelation.

4 Big Myths of the Book of Revelation

(CNN) – The anti-Christ. The Battle of Armageddon. The dreaded Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.

You don’t have to be a student of religion to recognize references from the Book of Revelation. The last book in the Bible has fascinated readers for centuries. People who don’t even follow religion are nonetheless familiar with figures and images from Revelation.

And why not? No other New Testament book reads like Revelation. The book virtually drips with blood and reeks of sulfur. At the center of this final battle between good and evil is an action-hero-like Jesus, who is in no mood to turn the other cheek.

Elaine Pagels, one of the world’s leading biblical scholars, first read Revelation as a teenager. She read it again in writing her latest book, “Revelations: Visions, Prophecy & Politics in the Book of Revelation.”

In her book, Pagels returns The Book of Revelation to its historical origin. The author of Revelation, John of Patmos, took aim at the Roman Empire after what is now known as the "Jewish War", in 66 CE. Militant Jews in Jerusalem, filled with religious fervor, waged an all-out war against Rome's occupation of Judea and their defeat resulted in the desecration of Jerusalem and its Great Temple.

Pagels persuasively interprets Revelation as a scathing attack on the decadence of Rome. Soon after, however, a new sect known as "Christians" seized on John's text as a weapon against heresy and infidels of all kinds - Jews, even Christians who dissented from their increasingly rigid doctrines and hierarchies.

Pagels’ book is built around a simple question: What does Revelation mean? Her answers may disturb people who see the book as a prophecy about the end of the world.

People have clashed over the meaning of Revelation ever since it was virtually forced into the New Testament canon over the protests of some early church leaders, Pagels says.

“There were always debates about it,” she says. “Some people said a heretic wrote it. Some said a disciple. There were always people who loved and championed it.” The debate persists. Pagels adds to it by challenging some of the common assumptions about Revelation.

Four big myths about Revelation:
  1. It’s about the end of the world..

    Anyone who has read the popular “Left Behind” novels or listened to pastors preaching about the “rapture” might see Revelation as a blow-by-blow preview of how the world will end.

    Pagels, however, says the writer of Revelation was actually describing the way his own world ended.

    She says the writer of Revelation may have been called John – the book is sometimes called “Book of the Revelation of Saint John the Divine” but he was not the disciple who accompanied Jesus. He was a devout Jew and mystic exiled on the island of Patmos, off the coast of present-day Greece.

    “He would have been a very simple man in his clothes and dress,” Pagels says. “He may have gone from church to church preaching his message. He seems more like a traveling preacher or a prophet.”

    The Dangers of Fundamentalist Beliefs

    What does it mean to be a fundamentalist Christian? It means that you take the Bible as the 100% literal truth and your life is centered around this belief. A rational person would ask the question, "Why do you believe what you believe?" The answer you'll most often get is, "because it's the truth." Your response, "How do you know? This is when you'll be bombarded with circular arguments, ignorance fallacies, cherry-picking, and the coup de gras, "God of the Gaps" argument (the latter argument uses religion, or God, to fill in any and all gaps without providing any proof whatsoever).

    Pay close attention to what the fundamentalist says from this point forward because this will give you an idea of the type of mentality you're dealing with. Their mind has been conditioned to the point they are terrified of the unknown, they are spiritually incomplete and confused, and consistently deny reality. Terrified of the unknown, the believer usually can't deal with the uncertainty of life. He has a compulsive need to be certain, which feeds his beliefs in myriad unproven, unfathomable, and unrealistic religious doctrines.

    The moral and intellectual dishonesty that spawns from their beliefs, more often than not, will be a lifelong companion. The fundamentalist reality is custom fitted in the religious box it has resided in since birth. Fundamentalism is the antithesis of critical thinking. Facts must fit or they are ignored completely.

    The Book of Revelation is what ultimately drives the fundamentalist believer. Their leaders (pastors, ministers, bishops, cardinals, etc) claim to have been given "revelations" from God, that they pass on to their parishioners; revelations that come straight from the Bible. Most religious people today will quickly inform you that his church is "non-denominational." It may claim to be  non-denominational, but the text you study, your thoughts, ideas, and beliefs are definitely biased toward one particular denomination; one distinctive faith.

    Followers who are easily mislead, fundamentalists believe the interpretations of the Book of Revelations, as they are laid out by their religious leaders. Like most books in the Bible, Revelations is incredibly vague, but this does not alter the blind faith of the fundamentalist. This is the primary reason why Fundamentalist Christianity, like her brother, Islam Extremism, is extremely dangerous. Christian and Muslim leaders have taken, medieval, vague predictions from the Bible and the Qur'an, and applied them to modern times. The Qur'an, is believed by Muslims to be the "flawless final revelation of God to humanity, valid until the Last Day."

    The literal belief is that Christ will return (the Rapture) and save his believers before the final battle. The book entitled, "Left Behind", written by Tim LaHaye and Jerry Jenkins explains Armageddon in great detail.  "Left Behind", chronicles the events that take place in the apocalypse as described in the Bible. There are a plethora of people who believe as LaHaye and Jenkins does and if they are ever in positions of power, will take whatever actions necessary to stop the apocryphal "Anti-Christ" and fulfill prophecy.

    Fundamentalist believe that Israel is God's chose nation. Not once do they consider that if a loving Deity does exist, such an entity would not play favorites, just as any loving parent does not favor one child over the other.

    According to believers, the New World Order will make us all slaves to the Anti-Christ. If this whole Anti-Christ hooey were true, you could look no further than the Federal Reserve, Central Banks, and the International Banking Cartels as the collective global culprit. Religion is the tool being used to keep us divided; to keep us fighting against one another, based on something as trite as religious beliefs. This allows those very few in power to continue to pull the wool over our eyes.

    It's past time to wake up and stop believing 2600-year-old archaic rhetoric. Study the universe for two months, with an objective mind, and you'll clearly see you have been DUPED.
    The author of Revelation had experienced a catastrophe. He wrote his book not long after 60,000 Roman soldiers had stormed Jerusalem in 70 A.D., burned down its great temple and left the city in ruins after putting down an armed Jewish revolt.

    For some of the earliest Jewish followers of Jesus, the destruction of Jerusalem was incomprehensible. They had expected Jesus to return “with power” and conquer Rome before inaugurating a new age. But Rome had conquered Jesus’ homeland instead.

    The author of Revelation was trying to encourage the followers of Jesus at a time when their world seemed doomed. Think of the Winston Churchill radio broadcasts delivered to the British during the darkest days of World War II.

    Revelation was an anti-Roman tract and a piece of war propaganda wrapped in one. The message: God would return and destroy the Romans who had destroyed Jerusalem.

    “His primary target is Rome,” Pagels says of the book’s author. “He really is deeply angry and grieved at the Jewish war and what happened to his people.”

  2. The numerals 666 stand for the devil..

    The 1976 horror film “The Omen” scared a lot of folks. It may have scared some theologians, too, who began encountering people whose view of Revelation comes from a Hollywood movie.

    “The Omen” depicted the birth and rise of the “anti-Christ,” the cunning son of Satan who would be known by “the mark of the beast,” 666, on his body.

    Here’s the passage from Revelation that “The Omen” alluded to: “This calls for wisdom: let anyone with understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a person. Its number is six hundred sixty-six.”

    Good movies, though, don’t always make good theology. Most people think 666 stands for an anti-Christ-like figure that will deceive humanity and trigger a final battle between good and evil. Some people think he’s already here.
    Pagels, however, says the writer of Revelation didn’t really intend 666 as the devil’s digits. He was describing another incarnation of evil: The Roman emperor, Nero. The arrogant and demented Nero was particularly despised by the earliest followers of Jesus, including the writer of Revelation. Nero was said to have burned followers of Jesus alive to illuminate his garden.

    But the author of Revelation couldn’t safely name Nero, so he used the Jewish numerology system to spell out Nero’s imperial name, Pagels says.

    Pagels says that John may have had in mind other meanings for the mark of the beast: the imperial stamp Romans used on official documents, tattoos authorizing people to engage in Roman business, or the images of Roman emperors on stamps and coins.

    Since Revelation’s author writes in “the language of dreams and nightmares,” Pagels says it’s easy for outsiders to misconstrue the book’s original meaning.

    Still, they take heart from Revelation’s larger message, she writes:

    “…Countless people for thousands of years have been able to see their own conflicts, fears, and hopes reflected in his prophecies. And because he speaks from his convictions about divine justice, many readers have found reassurance in his conviction that there is meaning in history – even when he does not say exactly what that meaning is – and that there is hope.”

  3. The writer of Revelation was a Christian..

    The author of Revelation hated Rome, but he also scorned another group – a group of people we would call Christians today, Pagels says. There’s a common perception that there was a golden age of Christianity, when most Christians agreed on an uncontaminated version of the faith. Yet there was never one agreed-upon Christianity. There were always clashing visions.

    Revelation reflects some of those early clashes in the church, Pagels says. That idea isn’t new territory for Pagels. She won the National Book Award for “The Gnostic Gospels,” a 1979 book that examined a cache of newly discovered “secret” gospels of Jesus. The book, along with other work from Pagels, argues that there were other accounts of Jesus’ life that were suppressed by early church leaders because it didn’t fit with their agenda.

    The author of Revelation was like an activist crusading for traditional values. In his case, he was a devout Jew who saw Jesus as the messiah. But he didn’t like the message that the apostle Paul and other followers of Jesus were preaching. This new message insisted that gentiles could become followers of Jesus without adopting the requirements of the Torah. It accepted women leaders, and intermarriage with gentiles, Pagels says.

    The new message was a lot like what we call Christianity today. That was too much for the author of Revelation. At one point, he calls a woman leader in an early church community a “Jezebel.” He calls one of those gentile-accepting churches a “synagogue of Satan.”

    John was defending a form of Christianity that would be eclipsed by the Christians he attacked, Pagels says. “What John of Patmos preached would have looked old-fashioned – and simply wrong to Paul’s converts…,” she writes. The author of Revelation was a follower of Jesus, but he wasn’t what some people would call a Christian today, Pagels says. “There’s no indication that he read Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount or that he read the gospels or Paul’s letters,” she says. “….He doesn’t even say Jesus died for your sins.”

  4. There is only one Book of Revelation..

    There’s no other book in the Bible quite like Revelation, but there are plenty of books like Revelation that didn’t make it into the Bible, Pagels says.

    Early church leaders suppressed an “astonishing” range of books that claimed to be revelations from apostles such as Peter and James. Many of these books were read and treasured by Christians throughout the Roman Empire, she says. There was even another “Secret Revelation of John.” In this one, Jesus wasn’t a divine warrior, but someone who first appeared to the apostle Paul as a blazing light, then as a child, an old man and, some scholars say, a woman.

    So why did the revelation from John of Patmos make it into the Bible, but not the others?
    Pagels traces that decision largely to Bishop Athanasius, a pugnacious church leader who championed Revelation about 360 years after the death of Jesus.

    Athanasius was so fiery that during his 46 years as bishop he was deposed and exiled five times. He was primarily responsible for shaping the New Testament while excluding books he labeled as hearsay, Pagels says. Many church leaders opposed including Revelation in the New Testament. Athanasius’s predecessor said the book was “unintelligible, irrational and false.”

    Athanasius, though, saw Revelation as a useful political tool. He transformed it into an attack ad against Christians who questioned him. Rome was no longer the enemy; those who questioned church authority were the anti-Christs in Athanasius’s reading of Revelation, Pagels says.

    “Athanasius interprets Revelation’s cosmic war as a vivid picture of his own crusade against heretics and reads John’s visions as a sharp warning to Christian dissidents,” she writes. “God is about to divide the saved from the damned – which now means dividing the ‘orthodox’ from ‘heretics.’ ’’

    Centuries later, Revelation still divides people. It is the strangest and most controversial book in the Bible. Even after writing a book about it, Pagels has hardly mastered its meaning. “The book is the hardest one in the Bible to understand,” Pagels says. “I don’t think anyone completely understands it.”